Professional Knowledge & Academic Knowledge in Higher Education

Knowledge can emanate from various aspects depending on the environment in which an individual is gaining experience. The aspect of professional knowledge takes a different course from academic knowledge, notably for the higher education. Invariably, knowledge refers to skills, facts, and information acquired via education or experience – the practical or theoretical understanding accruing to a subject (Rugg, 2014). The expression ‘professional development’ may be deployed in education to refer to various specialized training, advanced professional learning, or formal education to assist teachers and administrators in enhancing their professional knowledge as well as effectiveness, skills, and competencies. Nonetheless, academic knowledge entails the entity of knowledge emanating from aggregate academic inquiry notably in academia, the group of scholars involved in research (Todd, 1984). This research paper illustrates that academic knowledge is a product of academic research for theoretical frameworks while professional knowledge is a product of applying the learned theoretical paradigms in solving real-life problems in various workplaces.

Professional knowledge has conventionally emanated from a linkage of science and myth (Schon, 1988). Invariably, as professions grew, professional education proved to obliterate the underlying myths via adoption of the technical rationality framework. Schon upholds the ideology that empirical research outstands to be the sole valid approach for generating knowledge. Schon (1988) further reveals the ‘reflection-in-action’ approach besides enhancing epistemological search regarding practice implicit for the intuitive, artistic process wherein some practitioners handle aspects of instability, value conflict, uncertainty, and uniqueness. This analogy asserts the prevalence of professional education on the knife-edge accruing to transformation, yielding a balance between the aspect of uncertainty and uncertainty’s reality. Todd (1984) supports this knowledge generation approach by revealing a ‘closed strategy’ by emphasizing on the importance of centralizing on continued learning notably in the practice domain with the active practitioner generating knowledge at various sources.

On the other hand, academic research is the key approach via which academic knowledge is generated. Invariably, the research forms a platform for the learners to familiarize with various theories and models and gain an understanding of their various applications in real life scenarios (Gilbert, 2005).  Academic knowledge is crucial for superior professional knowledge following the current vastly changing digital world. Furthermore, academic research has a key goal of generating theoretical frameworks and knowledge that other practitioners in the field can draw on besides adopting to enhance practice in their individual contexts. For instance, academic development regarding medicine, engineering, and sciences resulted in setting up of the Internet, telecommunication, computer services, biotechnology, and digital financial services, whose knowledge can facilitate the possessors of professional knowledge to enhance the underlying effectiveness and accuracy of practice.

Nevertheless, the key difference between the professional and academic knowledge encompasses the dependent on the environment of acquisition. Primarily, academic knowledge is fairly learned in school besides being typically theory-based as an individual spends much time in learning theories and concepts (Eraut, 2002). On the other hand, professional knowledge is acquired via the process of applying theory to practice when on-the-job.  Moreover, theory precedes practice, an analogy that perpetuates the ideology of the supremacy accruing to such an epistemological perspective for professional education (Kinsella, 2009). The application order accruing to theoretical knowledge is further an order of dependence and derivation since the hierarchical paradigm of professional knowledge links research to practice by keenly defining various relationships of exchange. On the other hand, generation of academic knowledge is dependent on academic research and hence embraces academic research and generation of theories instead of enhancing practice. Professional knowledge is central to action research while academic knowledge is central to academic research.

In a nutshell, the transforming technology calls for research of new theoretical models that would best solve the newly emerging challenges optimally. Acquisition of professional knowledge entails application of theory into practice while academic knowledge is achieved via academic research. Once the individual uses the learned models in solving the emerging real-life challenges, the person gains professional knowledge in the specific area of operation and hence perfect the underlying practicality depending on the superiority of the familiarized frameworks and their problem-solving potentials. Consequently, academic knowledge forms the basis for professional knowledge. Academic knowledge is further central to embracing various theoretical frameworks while professional knowledge encompasses using the learned theoretical frameworks in solving real-life challenges. Professional knowledge also embraces action research which enhances the people’s knowledge depending on the underlying experience encountered in the workplaces whereas academic knowledge is pertinent to academic research and not the practicality of the researched content in work.



Eraut, M. (2002). Developing professional knowledge & competence. Taylor & Francis Group. London: Routledge.

Gilbert, J. (2005).Catching the knowledge wave: the knowledge society & the future of education. Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Kinsella, A.E. (2009). Professional knowledge & the epistemology of reflective practice. Nursing Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons Inc.: Wiley Online Library. Retrieved from

Rugg, G. (2014). Education vs. training, academic knowledge vs. crafts: some useful concepts. Word Press. Retrieved from

Schon, D. (1988). From technical rationality to reflection-in-action. In J Dowie & A. Elstein          (Eds), Professional Judgment. Open University Press.

Todd, F. (1984). Learning & work: directions for continual professional & vocational    education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 3 (2), 89-104.



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New Trends in Business Education

The political, economic and social panorama has always lead to changes throughout history; however, in today’s volatile world, these changes are characterized by their speed and by the global impact they  entail, a consequence of a highly interconnected global economy.

Business Schools are not alien to these changes and are also affected by changes in the market. In the previous decade, a clear example of this has been, for example, internationalisation. Together with the internationalisation of the economy, Business Schools have had to take up the challenge of internationalisation from a strategic perspective within their sustainability plans in order to remain competitive. The recruitment of international profiles of staff and academics or the development of business to attract new students beyond borders, have been a consequence of market demands to generate Higher Education Institutions, capable of responding to the evolution and changes of the global economy. It is not surprising that the most prestigious accreditations (such as EFMD-EQUIS) or the most prestigious rankings (such as FT) have an outstanding place for measuring this variable.

If the internationality of Business Schools has been a clear example of a trend in the previous decade, what will be the new trends of the B-Schools market?

1.-  Digital Disruption:

We are not yet aware of the tremendous impact that digitalization and technology will have in the field of Business Education. We are not talking about Blended programs (which is already a reality) but about new digital interaction platforms that are going to increase learning without having to be physically present in the classroom. This will not only lead to an exponential change in the interaction of participants, but will also cause  changes in the design of programs, marketing and training of professors and professionals to lead the sessions.

2.- Dual-Degrees & International Partnerships:

One of the main trends of internationalization has been the increase of international partnerships to be competitive without assuming high structural costs. In the new market, we are going to observe a great increase of these partnerships, highlighting those related to Dual-Degrees & Joint-Degrees. A clear example will be the Dual Degree MSc in Management & MSc in Big Data and Business Intelligence.  This combination will be of real added value not only for the student, who will be able to train in two schools and two countries-, but also for the directionality of the B-Schools, which will be in charge of assuming the formation in which they are specialized. Thus, meaning the downsizing of the training catalogue and the specialization in specific fields.

3.- Real Lifelong Learning:

Both the increase in longevity and the speed of change are going to have an impact on the market due to the need to continuously train executives. Programs in smaller formats and focused on very specific aspects will be recurrent in the new scenario. For example, we are already observing this trend  with regards to topics such as  cybersecurity or the possibilities of artificial intelligence.

4.- Management Education VS Business Education:

This is the point that will have the greatest impact on formal education curricula. BBA, MSc in Management and MBAs, are going to improve their scheme, changing from a traditional business knowledge approach (finance, marketing, supply chain…) to an innovative perspective based on management knowledge with a basic business core. We will see an increase in contents such as: Leadership, team management, problem solving and result orientation, negotiation, motivational techniques…The development of this subject matter through practical teaching will lay the foundations for changing from Business Education to Managerial Education, turning Business Schools into Schools of Management.

5.- Internal Managerial Movements:

A phenomenon that has already occurred and continues to occur in Business Schools and Higher Educations Institutions is the recruitment of managers for management positions that were traditionally in the hands of academics.  The speed of change and its exponential impact will mean that managers in business schools management will be regarded as the key to leading these changes.


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The Next Generation: Business Performance


Generation Z is made up of individuals who were born from the year 1995 to date. It makes up about 25.9% of the total population of the United States, and also contributes a total of about $ 44 billion to the economy of America (Carrington, 2016). Generation X, on the other hand, comprises of people who were born between the year 1966 to 1976, while those in generation Y, commonly known as the Millenniums, were born between the year 1977 and 1994. There is a big difference between generation Z (post-millennium) and the millennial (Combi, 2015). The difference between those two groups is very important especially in the preparation of business to shift marketing, compete favorably and adjust leadership (Koulopoulos & Keldsen, 2014).

Generation Z is mainly made up of young and innovative individuals (Nissen, 2014). For this reason, among others, most entrepreneurs have realized that having employees from this generation will enable their organizations to achieve competitive advantage (Dörrenbächer & Geppert, 2017). Most of the young generation are realists, and they believe in having room for more knowledge. No one can be able to know too much or be too prepared (Mattox, 2016). Hence, they are the best generation to utilize the professional development opportunities and career-focused perks with higher education and training courses to always stay ahead of the curve (In Williamson et al., 2013).

Generation Z is known of being a generation of people who speak to their independent nature (Stillman & Stillman, 2017). When it comes to the workplace, they have the tendency of taking things and actions into their own hands (Chilton & Bloodgood, 2014). They value their opinions, and always want to set their own personal goals (Tromblay & Spelbrink, 2016). Entrepreneurial companies need this mentality to compete favorably in the market (Kalling, 2005). Large companies, on the other hand, can take advantage of the same by increasing the number of entrepreneurial opportunities in their operating business model (Levy, 2001).

According to research, the older an employee gets, the more important it becomes to achieve a work-life balance for both genders. Generation Z understands the fact that life priorities matters (Al-Hakim, Pan & Wei, 2016). For them, suggestions of better balance opportunities is not enough. Most of the employees in the past were reluctant to grab such opportunities with the fear of what their coworkers and management might think of them (Bhaduri, 2016). Nowadays, employees from Generation Z have magnified the importance of priorities outside work (Tatachari, Manikandan & Gunta, 2014). A business culture that acknowledges balance will lead to a more confident and well-rounded workplace (Kong, 2014). This increases the work output and efficiency of employees.

It is only through Generation Z that the gender equality code will be cracked. Most companies have realized the competitive advantage of leadership diversity (Bergh, Behrer & Maeseneire, 2016). Only women from Generation Z can take the leap. Companies which will realize and make it through imposing or perceiving barriers, which will earn the loyalty of women, will enjoy both the short-term and long-term competitive advantages (Joseph, 2005). Most women from Generation Z are erudite and innovative just as men, which was not the case ages ago (Scase, 2007). Nowadays, women have been empowered, and can compete favorably just like men (Davidson, Keegan & Brill, 2004).

Al-Hakim, L., Pan, Q., & Wei, J. (January 01, 2016). The Effect of Organizational Slack on Innovation Performance.
Bergh, J. ., Behrer, M., & Maeseneire, P. . (2016). How cool brands stay hot: Branding to generation Y and Z.
Bhaduri, S. N. (2016). Advanced business analytics: Essentials for developing a competitive advantage.
Carrington, V. (2016). Generation Z. Springer Singapore.
Chilton, M. A., & Bloodgood, J. M. (January 01, 2014). Competitive Advantage and Automated Sharing of Tacit Knowledge.
Combi, C. (2015). Generation Z: Their voices, their lives. London: Hutchinson.
Davidson, J. H., Keegan, W. J., & Brill, E. A. (2004). Offensive marketing: An action guide to gaining competitive advantage. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Dörrenbächer, C., & Geppert, M. (2017). Multinational corporations and organization theory: Post millennium perspectives.
In Williamson, P. J., In Ramamurti, R., In Fleury, A. C. C., & In Fleury, M. T. L. (2013). The competitive advantage of emerging market multinationals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Joseph, R. L. (2005). New millennium “mulattas”: Post-ethnicity, post-feminism, and the mixed-race excuse.
Kalling, T. (January 01, 2005). ERP Systems and Competitive Advantage.
Kong, E. (January 01, 2014). The Role of Social Intelligence in Acquiring External Knowledge for Human Capital Development, Organisational Learning, and Innovation.
Koulopoulos, T., & Keldsen, D. (2014). Gen Z Effect: The Six Forces Shaping the Future of Business. Brookline: Taylor and Francis.
Levy, N. (2001). Being up-to-date: Foucault, Sartre, and postmodernity. New York: P. Lang.
Mattox, J. R. (2016). Learning analytics: Measurement innovations to support employee development.
Nissen, M. E. (January 01, 2014). Harnessing Knowledge Power for Competitive Advantage.
Scase, R. (2007). Global remix: The fight for competitive advantage. London: Kogan Page.
Stillman, D., & Stillman, J. (2017). Gen Z @ work: How the next generation is transforming the workplace.
Tatachari, S., Manikandan, K. S., & Gunta, S. S. (January 01, 2014). A Synthesis of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management Literatures.
Tromblay, D. E., & Spelbrink, R. G. (2016). Securing U.S. innovation: The challenge of preserving a competitive advantage in the creation of knowledge.

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Attracting and Retaining Talent: An Individual Perspective

Success in business organizations is determined by the achievement of objectives and goals. Al Ariss, Cascio and Paauwe (2014) argue subiendo--647x400that success depends on the ability of the prospect to attract, retain as well as engage great talents in the competitive labor market. According to human capital theory, attracting highly skilled personnel is as important as acquiring equipment or adopting new technological practices in an organization (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). It creates a competitive edge against the rival firms in the industry. The method of attraction includes provision of competitive pay, employee benefit packages, and reputable corporate brand (Christensen Hughes & Rog, 2008). Research conducted by McKinsey consultants in the book The War of Talent affirms that successful companies employ talent management strategies to improve productivity. These companies tend to be a preference to job seekers in the labor market as they provide incentives to their employees (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). Intrinsically, a study conducted by Ashridge Management Index of the Business Trends confirmed that talent management is an important aspect of the performance of an organization (Kontoghiorghes & Frangou, 2009). Of the 800 managers interviewed in the study, 66% recommended talent management as an important emerging trend in corporate success.

During recruitment of staff, the prospective candidate is evaluated based on psychological tests and how their intellectual capabilities reflect the demands of the company (Nazir, Shah & Zaman, 2012). The Only-the-best Theory as a concept of talent management theory requires managers to hire human labor with best talents compared to them. Human personnel that are smarter than the management is a key factor in the success of an organization. As per Katzenbach, Team-on-a-bus theory is an important concept in talent management (Orlova, Afonin & Voronin, 2015). It serves to bridge the gap conflict between goals of an organization and the talent to realize the goals. As such, the management acquires the right people required for the progress of the organization.

Cao, Chen and Song (2013) reiterates on reward management as a talent development strategy. Best performing employees are rewarded for boosting their morale. According to Maslow on hierarchy theory, motivation is an important aspect of human development. Rewards can be categorized as either cash or non-cash, and it is an incentive provided to satisfy the psychological needs (Wallace et al., 2014). Apparently, monetary pay as a form of reward has significant values compared to non-cash rewards. It motivates and reinforces retention of employees. With respects to total reward theories, intrinsic rewards tend to motivate employees as compared to the extrinsic rewards (Orlova, Afonin & Voronin, 2015). The latter relates to salary, working environment, and job security. In as much provision of the extrinsic factors are important, the intrinsic factors had an impact on boosting the performance of the employee. It modifies behavior by improving the innovative and creativity aspects of employees. Studies by James & Mathew (2012) affirm that performance-based incentives rank highest among the motivation factors in Chinese culture. As such, human resources performance is high in China as confirmed by the influx of overseas investment (Jiang et al., 2009). Therefore, employees in the country tend to work more than the financial gains they acquire.


Al Ariss, A., Cascio, W. F., & Paauwe, J. (2014). Talent management: Current theories and future research directions. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 173-179.

Cao, Z., Chen, J., & Song, Y. (2013). Does Total Rewards Reduce the Core Employees’ Turnover Intention? International Journal of Business and Management, 8(20), 62.

Christensen Hughes, J., & Rog, E. (2008). Talent management: A strategy for improving employee recruitment, retention and engagement within hospitality organizations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(7), 743-757.

Collings, D. G., & Mellahi, K. (2009). Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. Human resource management review, 19(4), 304-313.

James, L., & Mathew, L. (2012). Employee retention strategies: IT industry. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 9(3), 79.

Jiang, Z., Xiao, Q., Qi, H., & Xiao, L. (2009). Total reward strategy: A human resources management strategy going with the trend of the times. International Journal of Business and management, 4(11), 177.

Kontoghiorghes, C., & Frangou, K. (2009). The association between talent retention, antecedent factors, and consequent organizational performance. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 74(1), 29.

Nazir, T., Shah, S. F. H., & Zaman, K. (2012). Literature review on total rewards: An international perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 6(8), 3046.

Orlova, L. V., Afonin, Y. A., & Voronin, V. V. (2015). Talent Management and Knowledge: Theory, Methodology, Models.

Wallace, A. P. M., Lings, I., Cameron, R., & Sheldon, N. (2014). Attracting and retaining staff: the role of branding and industry image. In Workforce development (pp. 19-36). Springer Singapore.


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Gracias, Ignacio

Un héroe. Ojalá, haya muchos más como tú en este mundo.


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Humanism: A Business Perspective

humanism-1Humanistic approaches such as participation of stakeholders and corporate social responsibility are rapidly developing in today’s organizations with the aim of enhancing long-term growth and profitability. However, humanism in business goes beyond the root of these approaches and tends to explore the possibility of creating a society that is value-oriented and human-centered; anchored on humanistic principles. Apparently, arguments based on philosophical, spiritual, economic, psychological and organizational arguments indicate that if effectively applied, humanism can transform a business in three distinct categories; at the system’s level, at the level of the organization and at an individual level.

 It is essential to consider healthy development in an individual’s perception. Especially, it is important to take into consideration the wellbeing of an individual regarding the job in humanism theory; a healthy individual can notice the correlations between their senses of self or who they are, and what they perceive that they should be or their ideal self. In principle, no one tends to go through the perfect correlation at the same time, but the relativity of the correlation is a health indicator. Abraham Maslow, being one of the founders of the Humanistic Approach, is better remembered because of his curiosity in applying the psychological principles in some of the areas in business settings. Prominently, his work on the hierarchy of needs for many years have been a primary concept in HR and organizational behaviors. Maslow came up with the term ‘Third Force’ in an attempt to describe the Humanistic Approach and stress on how distinct it was from the psychodynamics and behaviorists approaches, which was widespread in the 1950’s. In his theory, he stresses on motivation to be essential in understanding behavior. This becomes the principal of personality theory, which ultimately describes the characteristics of a healthy growth.

In the 1950’s, many researchers acknowledged the practical significance of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to the working class. They easily realized that for workers who are not in the management, their job only fulfilled their basic and security needs. They were only paid for the work done and were not assured of subsequent work. Furthermore, there was a total inconsideration for the higher order needs like social needs, self-actualization and esteem needs. Maslow, suggests that there could be more concern on the higher needs on the level of management in an organization. He observed that many organizations had their employees promoted majorly based on their technical qualifications at the expense of other considerations. Essentially, this implies that if a person could do a particular job, then that job was the only best choice for that person. Apparently, there was no emphasis laid by organizations regarding the psychological satisfaction with task as being a critical factor.

Intrinsically, some employees get promoted out of jobs that satisfied their needs into jobs that do not give them such satisfaction. This could imminently make them not to be effective. According to Maslow’s opinion, it is important to recognize employees’ perception of their jobs in relation to need satisfaction, the same way Maslow outlined, for the satisfaction of individuals and for the success and efficiency of an organization. Therefore, identifying people’s perception of their work can enable organizations to match employees to jobs that they do not only have expertise, but those that would satisfy them too.



Maslow, A. H. A Theory of Human Motivation. Lanham: Dancing Unicorn Books.


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Leadership Development: Coaching VS Mentoring

Leadership-2400x813Coaching is task oriented. The coach focuses on specific issues like learning how to think
strategically, managing more effectively and speaking more articulately. The process requires an expert coach capable of impacting these techniques (MacKie, 2014). Mentoring however, is relationship oriented and attempts to establish an enabling atmosphere in which the person being mentored can share all the issues that affect their personal and professional success. Whereas specific learning objective or capabilities might be employed to help build the relationship, other issues such as self-confidence, work/life balance and how one’s person can have an effect on the professional.

Coaching is a short time endeavor. It can last just a few sessions. Depending on the purpose of the coaching, it can tailor made to last as long as it is needed. Mentoring however, takes a long time to be successful, because the partners need more time to bond and gain each other’s trust so that the person being mentored can share actual issues that affect their success (Day et al., 2014). Coaching is performance oriented. The fundamental focus of coaching is to enhance a person’s on the job performance and entails either improving current skills or getting fresh expertise. After the individual under coach program obtains the necessary skills. The contract with the coach ends. Alternatively, mentoring on the other hand is development driven and is informed by the need to develop a person for both the current job and the future.

From my point of view, mentoring and coaching are both good methods to develop executive leadership. Depending on time, one can choose one over the other because coaching takes a short time while mentoring is long-term endeavor. In contrast, the preference of mentorship is higher due to the longer time of contact with the mentee.




Day, D. V., Fleenor, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Sturm, R. E., & McKee, R. A. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 63-82.

MacKie, D. (2014). The effectiveness of strength-based executive coaching in enhancing full range leadership development: A controlled study. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66(2), 118.

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Why invest in Talent Management?

Talent management entails attracting, developing, recruiting, and tenaretaining qualified employees in their pivotal roles. Also, talent management helps in recognizing an individual who excels in certain activities and performances upon which, they are supported to go beyond the limit whereas their colleagues are encouraged to emulate what they are doing differently (Hiller et al., 2017). Nonetheless, organizations that have a human resource team that focuses on good talent management has an increased competitive advantage. Since talent management helps in recruiting the right person to perform a specific task, retaining such top talent, recruiting qualified individuals, understanding the workforce, is key in implementing certified development decisions.

Through proper ascertaining of a person’s skills, strengths, and decisions, there is a good chance of hiring the right person for the specified job. An organization can use various methods and techniques in selecting the right person (Cobb, 2017; Noe et al., 2006). Such as developing a stock of skill inventories for each position in the organization. Therefore, during interviews, the panel can easily map out the required skills for a particular job. The act is important for a given perspective of the individual and the organization since the right person is hired for the right position; thus, rendering increased employee productivity.

Despite the changing of economic status globally, the main concern of most organization is attrition. Therefore, retaining top talent is rendered significant to growth and leadership in the marketplace. Since failure to retaining top talents in an organization is likely to give the competitors an upper hand. Consequently, organizations are now focusing on recruiting, developing, retaining, and engaging quality people by charting strategies and programs for employee’s retention (MS Experts, 2017). The strategies and programs include taking care of employee’s growth in career and ensuring the performance of succession planning whereas rewarding those who are performing well.

An organization is given appraisals by the quality of the employees it possesses. Hiring has proven to be a challenge for many organizations. This is because some organizations conduct interviews that terrifying. They ask questions that are partly inquisitional or partly interrogative while others let the interviewees wait for long or ask preposterous questions that throw them off guard (Lawler, 2010; Cobb, 2017). A smart organization knows how to get the best employees; thus, they ensure they undertake interviews that seek talent that will best fit in their values and goals. It is not surprising that in the human resource processes talent management programs, training, and hiring assessment has become an important aspect.

Understanding one’s employees is a great motivation tool for them to deliver and give their best performance. Managers need to know what makes their team members happy and avoid ignoring the employees since they can feel unmotivated. Managers should also appreciate their employees and let them feel special. Failure to this makes employees feel demoralized and they work for the salary and view work as a burden. Accordingly, the management team should get the deep insights of employees by undertaking continuous employee assessment (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). The assessments helps in knowing employees’ developmental needs, weaknesses and strengths, abilities, career aspirations, likes and dislikes that helps to determine what motivates an employee; hence, yielding high work productivity.

An organization can easily invest on improving professional developmental decision if it understands it’s potential. Hence, talent management can make this easier for any organization since development involves investing towards training, learning, and development for an individual either for personal growth, performance management, or succession planning (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). In addition, if employees are positive in the organization talent management practices, there is a high chance for them to develop confidence in the future of the organization. Thus, leading to a workforce that is more committed and determined in engaging to practices that outperform their competitors is essential for any organization to achieve its objectives.

Finally, in the contemporary world, organizations and companies have to make an informed decision in the workplace due to the rapidly increasing global market. Thereby, it is critical to have the right professional in the right work position since organizational success and shareholder value is parallel to the attraction and retaining of the best quality talent. The key to profitability and productivity of organizations is not only having people, but having the right people in the right place. Thus, if organizations can make efforts in designing and balancing their work they have a high chance of making sound and more informed decisions that ensure top talents are positioned in vital roles that produce positive effects to organizational strategies and success.




Cobb, A. (2017). Using Talent Management to Drive Competitive Advantage, by Adam Cobb. Retrieved 12 February 2017, from

Collings, D. G., & Mellahi, K. (2009). Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. Human resource management review, 19(4), 304-313.

Hiller, R. (2017). Gaining Competitive Advantage by Using Talent Management – Capterra Blog. Retrieved 12 February 2017, from

Khurshid, R. & Darzi, M. (2017). Managing talent for competitive advantage. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(2), 569-571.

Lawler III, E. E. (2010). Talent: Making people your competitive advantage. John Wiley & Sons.

Lewis, R. E., & Heckman, R. J. (2006). Talent management: A critical review. Human resource management review, 16(2), 139-154.

MSGExperts, (2017). Benefits of Talent Management. Retrieved 12 February 2017, from

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2006). Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage.

Schichtle, N. (2017). Retrieved 12 February 2017, from




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Humanistic Leadership and Business Performance


Humanistic LeadershipHumanistic leadership style is a sense of application of values and humane tendencies in the application of leadership in organization or a business setting. It focuses on the personal development and growth of an individual by constitution the various ethics that help create a conducive work environment for workers ( Kahai, Sosik & Avolio, 2003). It also outlines the responsibilities that individual workers are meant to share in by spreading them in a fair manner leading to cohesion in the workplace. Humanism focuses mainly on morality and the establishment of a precedent to do things correctly leading to a drastic improvement in the quantity and quality of work done in industry.

Humanism has a major impact on efficient and effective communication in business. Its aspect of in a business sense leads to the likeability of the individual and thus creates a dynamic that allows efficient leadership. It also increases ones perception of integrity leading to people listening to the information that is given out by the person. This then means that a credible person creates a much larger space for people to be effective in their jobs and other activities. This aspect also creates trust in the leadership as they are portrayed as trustworthy figures. This is an important aspect as it consolidates the staff into following directives in the company without the creation of strikes or riots in the workplace (Xenikou & Saimosi, 2006).

Humanism also creates a facet for the increase of competence levels in a work environment. This sis enhanced by the effective communication methods that a credible employer may use in the critique of a junior worker under them. If criticism is given towards a person in a more thoughtful way, there is evidence of improving levels of output as well as the prevention of common mistakes that occur in the manufacture of products. This drastically reduces the levels of losses as a collective as each employee functions at an optimum rate.

Humanistic leadership also creates the success of change in the company by incorporating the aspects of employee welfare. A major barrier to effective employee employer relations is the lack of the observance of the welfare of the employee in the business aspect of a company. This mostly stems from the habit of making a profit that is mostly the end goal of all businesses. To encounter this, the Humanistic Leadership Style employs the use of employee welfare. They are encouraged to join unions that create an environment for the caring of their rights. Also introduced are pension programs and healthcare insurance services to further care for their needs. This practice helps create a happy workforce that maximizes its optimum functions (Goleman, Boyatsiz & Mckee, 2002).

Lastly is the outlining of the structure of the company. Humanistic leadership helps facilitate for a smoother transition in the company aesthetic through the adoption of various techniques that facilitate the growth of the employer –employee relationship. This is done through team building exercises that help develop the relationship between the management and their staff. This effort helps in the strengthening of the relationship between the two helping improve the relations and creating familiarity. This approach means that the staff views their leadership as peers and is not afraid to interact with them leading to the integration of both sides. A better relationship leads to better office results and thus profitability in the company.



Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2002). The new leaders: Transforming the art of leadership into the science of results (p. 14). London: Little, Brown.

Kahai, S. S., Sosik, J. J., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Effects of leadership style, anonymity, and rewards on creativity-relevant processes and outcomes in an electronic meeting system context. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(4), 499-524.

Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(6), 566-579.

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Passion at Work and Performance of Senior Managers

blog-logo-940-198Several existing studies have indicated that nurturing the personalities of worker passion in their workforce, companies can make unremitting performance improvements and develop the resilient they require to endure unremitting market challenges and disruptions. According to Hagel et al. (2014), more than 88% of American workforce are unable to contribute to their full potential since they do not have passion of their work. Very few Americans in the workforce, around 12.3% have been found to possess the attributes of worker passion. Passionate workers are really committed to consistently attaining higher levels of performance. In contemporary ever changing business environment, organizations are looking for passionate workers, ranging from junior to senior employees because such employees are driving thrilling and constant performance gains. This paper discusses how passion of work is related with performance of senior managers.

Vallerand and Houlfort (2003) defined passion “as a sturdy feeling toward an activity that individuals like, that they find significant, and in which they capitalize energy and time” (p. 175). Vallerand et al. (2007) note that “passion signifies the energy essential . . . determined participation” (p. 506). Nevertheless, Vallerand and Houlfort (2003) suggest a dualistic model of passion: “harmonious passion” and “obsessive passion.” Their study envisages that while both forms of passion might end in sophisticated levels of worker engagement, “harmonious passion endorses healthy adaptation while obsessive passion prevents it by triggering undesirable distress and unbending doggedness” (p. 175). On the other hand, a factorial analysis of employee passion by Zigarmi et al. (2009) found several factors related with work passion and managers performance. This include connectedness with colleagues, fairness, growth, meaningful work, and autonomy.

Passionate senior managers improve organization performance because they are able to respond effectively and cautiously to challenges. Their passion relates to “how they develop skills, learn, and establish their careers over the long-term? How they interact with others to pursue goals? How they solve problems?” Managers help the organizations and themselves to develop the competences needed to continually learn and increase performance. Passionate managers deliver continuous and noteworthy performance improvement over time instead of a one-time performance pump. According to Ayers and Cahill (2012), a passionate manager as well as passionate employee is always focused, committed, and engaged to continuously perform to and deliver their best. This person feels robustly about the work he is conducting, as he knows he is creating value. This same person has a strong emotional connection with the firm he operates for –he feels a sense of commitment and pride towards the company. As a consequence, that manager or person is able to deliver exceptional value to his client, both inside and outside the organization.

Hence, in conclusion, in modern global business environment, frequently improving performance is essential characterized by continuous change, and increasing performance pressure where organizations have to take on novel roles, establish new competences, and vitally move their affiliations with clients and partners. In such environment, passion about the work someone is doing is very essential, as it is the only asset that has the latent to unceasingly appreciate. Organizations require lithe employees who challenge the status quo, learn from market trends and forces, and track better-quality performance. These employees are irrepressible. The pressure of rapidly changing business world do not smash them as they view encounters as opportunities to develop and learn; getting stronger from such opportunities.



Ayers, K.,& Cahill, F. (2012). Bridging the employee passion deficit. Integro Leadership Institute. Retrieved from

Hagel, J., Brown, J. S., Ranjan, A & Byler, D (2014). Cultivating worker passion as a cornerstone of talent development. Retrieved from

Vallerand, R. J., &Houlfort, N. (2003). Passion at work: Toward a new conceptualization. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner & D. P. Skarlicki (Eds.), Emerging perspectives on values in organizations (pp. 175-204). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Vallerand, R. J., Salvey, S., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A. J., Denis, P. L. Grouzet, F. M. E., & Blanchard, C. (2007). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75(3), 505-533. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00447.x

Zigarmi, D., Houson, D., & Witt, D. (2009). Employee passion. Perspectives, 1. Retrieved from

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